There is lots of ugly economic news out there, but one key bright spot is world trade. In the US, one particular industry will enjoy windfall profits from exports this year. That industry is agriculture.
In 2009, world trade took a big hit in the wake of the financial crisis. Global exports fell 12%. Governments tried to protect their home teams and a wave of tariffs and other protectionist measures followed. This was what happened during the Great Depression, too, as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act raised tariffs on more than 900 goods.
As a result, world trade sank by 25% during the early years of the Great Depression. But that hasn’t happened this time around. In fact, the emerging economies of the world are already exporting and importing more than they were before the 2008 crisis.
In the US, a big winner is agriculture. US farmers are looking at record exports of $14 billion this year. The heat wave frying European crops (in particular Russian crops) helps that. But even before the drought, in just the first four months of the year, the US enjoyed a $4 billion trade surplus in agriculture. For years, the US has been the world’s largest exporter of corn, wheat and soybeans. It is a leading exporter of many other agricultural goods.
Today, US farmers are cashing in on demand from emerging markets, particularly Asia. China has been trying to build self-sufficiency in food. But it has a long list of hurdles, chiefly a shrinking supply of arable land and water shortages. Also, the median Chinese farm is less than one acre. This hinders the economies of scale that come from big farms.
In any event, US farmers are sending more and more goods to the Far East. So perhaps it is no surprise that first US grain export depot built in 25 years is not on the rim of the Gulf of Mexico, but on the Columbus River in Washington state, about 60 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The new Port of Longview grain terminal will handle 8 million tonnes a year. (The Port of Louisiana is the still the top grain export hub in North America, although California recently passed Louisiana as the top point of departure for US cotton.)
We’ll need more depots like the new Port of Longview. American infrastructure has had a hard time keeping up with surging ag exports. Outside of Seattle, for instance, 80 rail cars filled with dried peas sat for three weeks on the train tracks waiting for a ship to unload them.
It’s not an isolated example. A soybean exporter in, say, Minnesota, could normally ship 40 tons of beans to Malaysia in 15-20 days. With recent bottlenecks, it took 60 days. There are plenty of stories of everything from hazelnuts to soybeans tied up in shipping bottlenecks for weeks.
The US isn’t used to such export strength. As The Wall Street Journal noted, “America’s trading infrastructure grew imbalanced, with a huge capacity to import goods but an attenuated capacity to export them. Loads of grain or corrugated paper leaving the US took a back seat to the DVDs and toys coming in.”
That’s the problem. For too long, the US economy has been all about overindulged consumers. There were too many stores selling too much junk, too many houses people couldn’t afford and too much debt on all of it. This part of the economy grew to grotesque proportions, stimulated by easy credit.
But underneath it all, there is still the old world of making things. In my last issue of Capital & Crisis, I wrote about the surprising strength of American manufacturing. American agriculture is also a bright star in the US firmament and an appealing place to invest.
The future of American agriculture is very bright indeed, as a recent report from the FAO makes very clear. You can find the report, entitled “How to Feed the World in 2050,”.
This excerpt from the report sums up the investment case:
Even if total demand for food and feed grows more slowly [over the next 40 years], just satisfying the expected food and feed demand will require a substantial increase of global food production of 70% by 2050, involving an additional quantity of nearly 1 billion tonnes of cereals and 200 million tons of meat.
In addition to the usual assortment of resource issues such as water and soil and climate change, there are some topics you wouldn’t think of otherwise, such as biodiversity. Take a look at this:
The gene pool in plant and animal genetic resources and in the natural ecosystems which breeders need as options for future selection is diminishing rapidly. A dozen species of animals provide 90% of the animal protein consumed globally and just four crop species provide half of plant-based calories in the human diet.
I won’t highlight too much of this report, because I’d be repeating myself. If you’ve read my observations for the last year or so, you know all you need to know about what’s happening in the world’s market for food. Still, if you need an overview, the FAO’s report covers most of the issues.
Farmers with windfall profits will have more money to expand production next year. That’s more money for things such as seed and tractors and fertilizers. As long as its export markets remain open, US farmers should have a great year.
As a long-term investment, Lindsay (NYSE:LNN) should benefit as farmers spend some of that money on irrigation equipment. The economics are attractive, as the machinery significantly boosts yields and makes more efficient use of water.
I also like the non-US ag plays, because high crop prices and the rising demand for food bode well for agriculture around the globe. In Canada, Viterra (TSX:VT) is a good long-term holding. It should rebound after excessive rains in Western Canada hurt grain production. In China, Migao (TSX:MGO), makes fertilizers for high-end crops such as fruits, vegetables and tobacco. It’s growing capacity, and as the financials reflect the additions, it should report good earnings.
Those are just a few. There are plenty more. The business of producing food should continue be a good one.
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